Saptrishi is a Sanskrit word which means Seven Saints, it is a class and group of seven great sages , who were the foundation of our ancient India, These sages contributed their life in researches and bringing wellness for all the beings of this world. They were the authors of many hymns and verses of Rigveda. Saptrishi were the Manasa Putra (Mind born) sons of Lord Brahma, hence they were the representatives of Lord Brahma, They were present from the Manu age (Manu is created by Brahma to rule each Manavantra). The life’s period of Saptrishi was known as Manavantara which is of 30,67,20,000 Years.
Each Manavantara consist of 71 Chaturyugas, One Chaturyugas will have four Yugas, These four yugas are
1) SATYUGA was for 17,28,000 years ( Yuga of Truth and Purity)
2) TRETAYUGA was for 12,96,000 years ( Yuga of Lord Rama)
3) DWAPARYUGA was for 8,64,000 years ( Yuga of Lord Krishna)
4) KALYUGA is for 4,32,000 years (Currently we are in 5111 years as of 2020)
Saptrishi have greater significance in the Indian mythology they had a very long life span due to their yogic powers, at the end of every Manavantara , new sages will take the responsibility of the old sages, and hence this process will go on and on till the Pralay (Destruction), which will take place after 14 Manavantara, they were the most powerful sages of the Vedic land and able to defeat any weapon on earth , Saptrishi’s were Trikal Darshi and they were able to forecast the future and past, not influenced by Life or Death at all. In ancient Indian astronomy the constellation of the Ursa Major is also known as Saptrishi. They still live among us in the form of Stars.
All the Present Hindu Gotras are referred to saptrishi, At present we are in seventh Manvantra , so in this Manvantar the Saptrishi are KASHYAP, ATRI, VASHISTA,VISHWAMITRA, GAUTAMA, JAMADAGNI and BHARADVAJA.
Rishi KASHYAP– Maharishi Kashyap is the son of Maharishi Marichi, Marichi was among the Saptrishi’s of 1st Manvantra, Maharishi Kashyap had 13 spouses, from them Devas , Asuras, Vamana, Takshaka, Apsara, and Gandharva were born, Lord Indra, Hirankashyap and Hiranyakhsa were the sons of Maharishi Kashyap.
Modern day Kashmir was the Abode of Maharishi Kashyap, Kashmir name is derived from Kashyapa Mir which means the lake of sage kashyap , In the ancients text of Greece , In the expedition of Alexendra the Great, Kashmir was known as Kasyapamira.
Rishi ATRI – Ancient texts are filled with the Greatness and Intellect of Rishi Atri , He has worked in the field of Medical Astrology named Ayurveda. He has composed Atri Sanhita, He has mentioned Divine Muhrats for Worship, ways to celebrate the Festivals, also he has mentioned his philosophy regarding life .
Rishi Atri was Married to Goddess Anusuya , and they used to live in chitrakut, she was the most divine and pativrata women in this whole universe, she brought river Mandakini from Devlok to Earth when there was no rain for ten years in Chitrakut. In Ramayana it is mentioned that Goddess Anusuya Gifted a Magical Saree to Mata Sita which will never get soiled, and some jewel s (By identifying this jewels Lord Rama Found a trail to obtain Mata Sita from Ravana.
Rishi VASHISTHA– Vashistha is Sanskrit word which means Most excellent . Like his name he was the most excellent and oldest saint of the vedic land, he was the Kulguru of Suryavanshi empire, he was the Guru of lord Rama and great grandfather of Rishi vyas. Rishi Vashistha had in his possession the divine cow Kamdhenu, Kamdhenu was obtained by samundra manthan, , who could grant any wishes to their Caretakers, and later gods gifted this cow to Rishi Vashistha.
He was the author of mandalas in Rigveda, His one of the abode was Mount abu, he used to lived with his cow nandini daughter of kamdhenu , it is said that there were no mountains there, one day when Rishi Vashistha was in meditation, nandini felt into a crater, from where she was unable to come out, Rishi Vashistha prayed to gods to take her out, so a flying snake name arbuda was called, after taking out the nandini to fill the crater , Rishi Vashistha urged to bring a mountain from Himalayan range named as Nandi Vardhan and kept at the palace of crater, later on Rishi Vashistha named that mountain has Arbudanchal, hence after british invasion Arbudanchal was known as Abu.
Rishi VISHWAMITRA– Vishwamitra was the most esteem rishis of ancient india, he is the author of 3 Mandals in Rigveda, The intresting fact about Vishwamitra was that he was not a saint or a manas putra of Brahma like other Saptrishi, he was King Kaushik, with his great penance and meditation he gained the knowledge and became one of the Saptrishi’s.
When he was the King kaushik he came with his army to Obtain Nandini from Rishi Vashistha, But Rishi vashistha killed all his army and King kaushik was defeated by Rishi vashistha badly, after the fight King kaushik was humiliated, and wanted to defeat Vashistha anyhow, so in the guidance of vamdeva he went for tapsya to please Lord Shiva, who gives him knowledge of celestial weapon, and this is how King Kaushik becomes Brahmrishi Vishwamitra. In Ramayana Vishwamitra takes lord rama after his studies for his 1st battle with ashuras, and also lead him to Janak, where Lord Rama married Mata Sita.
Rishi GAUTAM– Gautam Rishi was the author of 1st mandal of Rigveda, Ahalya was the wife of Rishi Gautam , she was utterly beautiful, perhaps Lord Indra Falls for him, One noon when Gautam rishi went to take a bath, Lord Inrdra came in disguise of Rishi Gautama, and went too her but ahalya knew that something was wrong so she ran away from him, so while returning from bath he sees his wife with another man, so he curses her to be a stone, because like a stonehearted she cheated on him, later he he comes to know about the incident, and annulled the curse
He gave a boon to her that she will be librated to human from stone, after Lord Rama touches that stone by his feet.
In the guidance of Maharishi Vishwamitra, Lord Rama reversed the curse and converted a stone into a women.
Rishi JAMADGINI– Jamadagni means the ones who consumes fire, he was the master of masters in warfare, he acquired this knowledge on his own, without any formal instructions, hence he acquired the science of weaponry, later he married Renuka, And Lord Parshuram (sixth Avatar of Lord Vishnu) was born.
In Mahabhara it is mentioned that, during meditaion he was really annoyed by the too much heat, so he Launched couple of arrows at sun, so he came in front of Rishi Jamadagni and taught him to invent Umbrella and sandals to prevent heat, Lord Parshuram was as fierce and brave as his father.
Rishi BHARADVAJ– he was the author of the 6th book of Rigveda, he was a economist and an eminent physician, he was the author of charaka samhita consisting medical science which he learned from Lord Indra, also he was the owner of Yantra sarvasva which includes discoveries in aviation science, he was the father of GURU DRONACHARYA , who later played an important role in Mahabharata, Ashwathama was the grandson of Rishi Bharadvaj.
In the research of University of Colombia , it has been proven that the Saptrishi were the part of ancient india, also Gautam Buddha has mentioned them in their scriptures.
I have only mentioned few of their achievements, too keep it short and have used easy words to be understood well. I have acquired this knowledge from “Saptarshi – The Seven Supreme Sages” by Anant Pie. Images were taken from google. The Saptrishi are as true as our Hinduism..